Campus Units

Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Biomedical Sciences

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Publication Version

Published Version

Publication Date


Journal or Book Title

Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery





First Page



This report documents the progression of chronic lymphocytic leukemia into diffuse aggressive lymphoma, or Richter’s syndrome, first manifesting as unilateral ophthalmic disease in a 10-year-old coonhound. Following a 1.5-year course of chronic leukemia that was in a clinical remission, the dog was presented for a protruded left globe. Orbital ultrasound revealed a vascular mass located ventromedially and causing indentation of the sclera. Skull computed tomography showed exophthalmos due to a soft tissue mass and concurrent left mandibular bony lysis. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography revealed a large right adrenal mass, peritoneal lymphadenopathy, multiple liver nodules, kidney infarcts, and dorsal body wall nodules. A diagnosis of uveal lymphoma with scleral extension was obtained on histopathology after surgical removal of the affected eye. Cancerous cells were large with high-grade proliferative features, consistent with T-cell lymphoma based on immunophenotyping (CD3+/CD20-). The dog was euthanized 2 days postoperatively due to declining systemic condition. Richter’s syndrome is a rare condition, but generally carries a grave prognosis. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of Richter’s syndrome in a veterinary patient presenting with an ophthalmic manifestation.


This article is published as Wehrman, Rita F, Lionel Sebbag, Chris M Reilly, Rachel A Allbaugh, Gil Ben-Shlomo, Erika P Berger, and Margaret L Musser. "Richter’s Syndrome as an Ocular Manifestation of Systemic Disease in a Dog: A Case Report." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery 3, no. 1 (2019): 22. Posted with permission.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright Owner

Wehrman RF, et al.



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Published Version