Campus Units

Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Veterinary Pathology

Document Type


Publication Version

Accepted Manuscript

Publication Date


Journal or Book Title

Veterinary Ophthalmology





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Objective To determine if topical ophthalmic diclofenac sodium 0.1% solution alters renal parameters in the domestic chicken, and to determine if the drug is detectable in plasma after topical ophthalmic administration.

Animals Thirty healthy domestic chickens

Procedures Over seven days, 6 birds were treated unilaterally with 1 drop of artificial tear solution (group 1), 12 birds were treated unilaterally (group 2) and 12 bilaterally (group 3) with diclofenac sodium 0.1% ophthalmic solution. Treatments were provided for 7 days, every 12 hours in all groups. Pre- and post-treatment plasma samples from all birds were evaluated for changes in albumin, total protein, and uric acid. Post-treatment samples of all birds were also analyzed by HPLC-MS for detection of diclofenac sodium.

Results Changes in pre- and post-treatment plasma albumin were significant (P < 0.05) in groups 2 and 3, but not for group 1. Pre- and post-treatment changes in total protein and uric acid pre- and post-treatment were not significant for any group. Diclofenac sodium was not detectable (limit of detection = 0.10 ng/mL) in plasma samples from birds in group 1. Concentration of drug in group 3 was statistically greater than group 2 (P = 0.0008).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Topical ophthalmic diclofenac sodium 0.1% administered every 12 hours in one or both eyes for 7 days is detectable in systemic circulation in the domestic chicken at 15 minutes post-administration, but did not cause overt changes in parameters used to monitor renal physiology.


This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Griggs, A. N., Yaw, T. J., Haynes, J. S., Ben-Shlomo, G., Tofflemire, K. L. and Allbaugh, R. A. (2017), Bioavailability and biochemical effects of diclofenac sodium 0.1% ophthalmic solution in the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). Vet Ophthalmol, 20: 171–176, which has been published in final form at DOI: 10.1111/vop.12387. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance With Wiley Terms and Conditions for self-archiving.

Copyright Owner

American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists



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