Campus Units

Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, Statistics

Document Type


Publication Version

Published Version

Publication Date


Journal or Book Title

The Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research





First Page


Last Page



The objective of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal effect of shock waves (SWs) on gram-negative or gram-positive monocultured biofilms grown on an orthopedic implant in vitro. Cortical bone screws were individually cultured with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus epidermidis to produce a biofilm. In each run of 8 screws, 6 screws were treated with shock waves and then sonicated to disrupt the biofilm. One screw was sonicated only and one was not shock waved or sonicated before sampling for plate count dilutions. Post-treatment serial dilutions and plate counts were done on an aliquot from the vial containing each screw to obtain the number of colony-forming units (CFUs). Shock waves were at a constant energy of 0.15 mJ/mm2. Pulse number and screw orientation were varied. A linear mixed-effects model was used with “treatment” as a fixed effect and “run” as a random effect. Pairwise comparisons of treatments were performed with Tukey-Cramer’s adjustment for P-values. Sonicated plate counts were greater than nonsonicated counts for each run. When all sonicated screws were compared to all nonsonicated screws, the counts were significantly increased (P = 0.0091). For each paired comparison between sonicated and shock wave treatment, the only significant difference was in the S. epidermidis biofilm treated at 2000 pulses in a horizontal position, which increased the post-treatment count (P = 0.0445). No bactericidal effects were seen on monocultured biofilms on cortical bone screws treated with shock waves.


This article is from The Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 76 (2012): 129. Posted with permission.

Copyright Owner

Canadian Veterinary Medical Association



File Format