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version 2

Granting or Sponsoring Agency

United States Dairy Export Council


Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a viral infection that mainly occurs in cloven-hooved animals including commercially important species such as cattle, sheep, goats, swine and (water) buffalo. The FMD virus (FMDV) can be shed by a variety of routes, including milk.1;2 FMDV can persist in milk products for some time, especially at refrigeration temperatures. This virus has been reported to survive in raw milk for 6 days at 18ºC and for 15 days at 4ºC.3 cited in 1 When the milk was pasteurized before adding FMDV, the virus was detected for 30-35 days at room temperature and 50 days at 4ºC. Terbruggen (1932) reported virus survival in milk for at least 12 hours at 37ºC, 25 hours at 17-20ºC and 12 days at 5ºC.1 In other experiments, it persisted in milk for up to 7 days at 7ºC, 5 days at 10ºC, 3 days at 15ºC or 42 hours at 20ºC.4 While FMDV in milk products seems to present a minimal risk to humans,5 products intended for human consumption (especially spoiled or outdated products) may be fed to animals. Other milk products may be manufactured for animal feed (e.g., whey used in calf milk replacer). Infected, nonpasteurized milk has been linked to FMD outbreaks;6-8 however, there are still uncertainties in the level of risk to animals fed pasteurized or processed milk products. This review summarizes information in the literature regarding the inactivation of FMDV in milk and milk products. Unless otherwise noted, all references to milk products refer to milk from cattle.


This report is version 2 (2012): 94 pp.


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